Perception – How all information is interpreted via the process of hearing, seeing, touching, smelling and kinesthetic. The process takes place very fast and most of the times people do not notice the interpretation. The brain perceives sound, touch, and the eyes to understand what is going on.
The brain manages the sensation it receives and delivers the responses. It receives the messages via touch, sound, visual and the skin. Major structures in the brain such as neurons, thalamus, visual cortex, olfactory system, nervous system help the process.

The brain uses our vision to see different things and people, our ears to hear sound loud or soft, our tongue to taste, our skin to feel textures.

A person perception can be wrong because of a trauma, the person sees things in negative ways. After especially a trauma a person perception can change, it could be the way the person deal with sound or the person may not be able to see.

The people from East Asia are interdependent, they engaged in several complex role relations and their environment are more complex and have more objects. They do not have too much social friction.
The westerners are independent and they would check an object and find out what it is for then categorize it.
“When we showed participants videos of fish, we found that Japanese were more likely to see emotions in the fish than were Americans (16).” (Nisbett. (2003)

In my culture, manners are very important and it shows the respect you have for others. However, Americans do not like manners so much, for example, I entered a classroom and the young lady did not care to say hello or good afternoon.


Lefrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). {Electronic version}.
Retrieved from
Richard E. Nisbett, Takahiko Masuda (2003). Culture and Point of view
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2003, 100 (19) 11163-11170; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1934527100


Memory and Intelligence

People commonly repress memories of traumatic experiences and hypnosis can be useful for retrieving these memories. Some people have a problem with depression or eating disorder which are issues from a trauma that happened to the person. Childhood abuse or incest which the person cannot recall can be remembered through hypnosis by a therapist.

Women and men had traumatic events occurred to them. Childhood sexual abuse prevalence is 28 percent of women and 16 percent of men. Physical abuse as a child prevalence is 40 percent of women and 53 percent of men. Any type of event that happens quick and life-threatening is something traumatic. A child’s parent went to the hospital and died suddenly is a form of trauma. The child can forget her whole life experiences before the trauma, it just erased like the child was never alive. Other times traumatic events overlap, for example, a child got abused and right after the abuser kick the child out of the house. Children and young adulthood trauma might need to deal with loneliness, betrayal of boundaries, trust issues, isolation, and vulnerability. Schnelzer, (2018).
Although they are several treatments, the person seeks such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). A parent can cause a child not to trust also when the parent does not validate the child’s needs, for example, a child says” Mommy, I want to eat.” The parent denies the child’s needs and says “No, you are not hungry.”
Trauma changes a person basic belief about people and the world, therefore, it is better to get help from professionals. Trauma is when you react with fear, helplessness or horror from an experience. It can take a toll on your physical health as your mental health. The person might turn to smoking, overeating, drinking alcohol or use drugs to deal with the bad emotions.
Another way to deal with trauma is using dissociate defense “leaving the body” or disappearing. The event or trauma is stored on a different hard drive. The loss of language can be the result of a trauma because that part of the brain was offline.
The stress from a trauma can be detrimental and it can kill the person. However, with the proper therapy can help the person to deal with the stress. Although the person might repress the event of a trauma once the person understands his or her personality, the road to recovery would be easy. The Holmes-Rahe stress Inventory is a program which can help the person to see at what level is the person stress, for example, 150 point or less is a relatively low amount of life change and low susceptibility to stress-induced health breakdown.

In order for the person to get heal, he or she must go back to the time the trauma occurred. Relationship with others could be null as a defense mechanism unless the other person had the same trauma. The person may experience tightness in the chest, feelings of fear, shame or powerless and knot in the stomach are all side effect of the trauma.
A person will create protective habits to survive a trauma, therefore, it can be very hard to unlearn. Some people can numb their senses, it helps change how a person takes the information. Raja, (2012). Coping is another way to deal with trauma, it keeps our mind safe when it has to deal with issues. It might help with contentment which allows the person to have a normal life.

Freud and Janet stated the correlation between such problems as eating disorder or depression could be an underline suppress the memory of a history of childhood abuse or incest which the clients have no recollection of. The two-psychologist used hypnosis to help the client to remember the trauma. They used this type of therapy to help the patient with his or her present’s symptoms. Orne, Whitehouse, Orne & Dinges. (2009).


The first technological war was the first world war, ten million people died on the battlefield and many others got hurt physically and mentally. (Keegan 3; Winter 15-53). Lots of soldiers suffered from hysterical symptoms, such as deafness and some visual impairment. Hypnosis was used at that time to help them psychologically. Some of the doctors did not believe in hypnosis and they think the doctor who performed hypnosis can overpower the patients similar to rape. Hales. (2011).

Scholars from the early history of mesmerism and hypnotism did not find proof of retrieval memory during late 1700’s and early to mid-1800’s. They did not find any evidence and they believed that Gassner told the patients they had the devil in them and that was the reason of trembling or shaking of the body. Some of the patients were exorcism which is the case of satanic or multiple personalities. Patihis, Burton & Helena J. (2015).
The trauma and traumatic memories can be the basis of the pain or serve to exacerbate the pain related to injuries or disease. In this chapter, we focus primarily on dealing with specific traumatic memories that may be related to the experience of persistent pain or triggered during procedures. However, underlying traumatic memories that are not specifically related to the expression of pain can also be resolved by these techniques for


Hypnosis is used by the therapist to help a person to remember a trauma, Therapist use hypnoanalysis which was made on the theory that ‘ repressed traumatic memories’ can be reached by hypnosis to cure the person of a psychological sickness. Hypnosis helps people to remember an unpleasant event. The therapist takes the person back to something that happened when the person was young. Mark P. (2011). Hypnosis is placebo without deception. Kirsh, (1994); Raz, (2007). A person suffered a traumatic event which left the person without the recollection of the event, can work with a therapist to use hypnosis to retrieve the memory.

















Gretchen L. Schnelzer, Ph.D. (2018). Journey through Trauma, A trail guide to the 5-Phase cycle of Healing Repeated Trauma

Jensen, Mark P. (2011). Hypnosis for chronic Pain Management

Hales, Barbara;(2011). Seminar: A Journal of Germanic Studies, Nov; 47 (5): 578-590. (journal article), Database: MLA International Bibliography
Subjects: trauma; neurosis; hypnosis; Wiene, Robert; The Hands of Orlac

Martin T. Orne, Wayne G. Whitehouse, Emily Carota Orne & David F. Dinges. (2009). “Memories” of Anomalous and Traumatic Autobiographical Experiences: Validation and Consolidation of Fantasy Through Hypnosis


Patihis, Lawrence; Younes Burton, Helena J.;(2015) Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, Vol 2(2), pp. 153-169. Publisher: Educational Publishing Foundation; [Journal Article], Database: PsycARTICLES
[retrieved from

Sheela, Raja, Ph.D. (2012). Overcoming Trauma and PTSD

The Concept Of Learning

I would explain the concept of learning to someone who has not taken this class as intentional, the person needs to focus to learn. Also, a schedule set in place is very important, it can be a little flexible however discipline is required to do what needs to be done. The person needs to have a reliable place to do the assignment without too many distractions. Even if an emergency occurs, push through to do the assignments on time. It is also important to read all the instructions, follow directions and get help if you need it. The person can also utilize critical thinking to improve his or her learning.

I learned from this class the way we used to learn is not the same anymore. We had to do a lot of memorization and I did not understand my learning pattern. After I studied my LCI scores, I have confidence I can accomplish anything because I am a strong-willed learner. I can be a leader because I am already wired for it. I also learned critical thinking is important in order to succeed as a learner.

My learning patterns are Sequence (30) Use First, Precision (26) Use First, Technical (24) Use as Needed and Confluent (25) Use as Needed. I am a strong-willed learner which I did not know before.
I intensified my precision Use First to gather all the important information I need to answer the questions. I did not take too many risks or guessing what needed to be done therefore I tethered my confluence learning pattern. I also welcome the change of following the instruction on open book to take the quizzes. I looked at the examples from the book and my classmates which meant I intensified my sequence. I used deep reading and reread the chapters that were assigned to the discussions and journals. I gathered all the information and applied them so I can get great grades. I took consideration of what would happen if I did not strategize for me to succeed in this class. I used the cue words which correspond to my sequence learning pattern. I set times aside to think, read, study and write for my assignments. I focus on one problem or issues per day. I also took inventory of the people in my life and I do not let some of them distracted me from finalized my assignments. I can pass the classes and get my degree.

The challenges that I may face in the online classroom due to my unique combination of learning patterns are my use first sequence, I need a good explanation to complete the assignments. I also need to intensify my precision so I can read and reread the text which is assigned for each week. At times if I get stuck or overwhelmed, I can talk to my advisor or the professor and try not to so strong that I think I do not need help. I must tether the need to have so many lead role. I learned multitasking is not good because as an intentional learner I need to focus on only one thing.
I will self-regulate my learning patterns to overcome these challenges by paying attention to what I am thinking. I can dismiss the non-productive thinking and implement the metacognitive. I can also decode my assignments and apply FIT in my learning patterns. I can fill out my personal strategy card for my classes so I can strategize base on my LCI scores.

As I am applying for my dream job, the interviewer says,” I see you’ve taken EXP 105.” I would explain that I am a strong-willed learner. I would also explain that I can follow directions. I am also a leader who can also think outside of the box. I am open to learning any new skills to help the company because I like changes. As a future employee, I would be the first to learn new skills or program for the enrichment of the company.

I enjoyed what I learned about myself and because they were a positive assessment of my learning patterns, I understood that I can earn my degree. I learned I am smart enough to internalize the assignment.
I trust my advisor, therefore, I knew that I can succeed in the class. I expected to learn new methods which can help me with my career. My expectations were met, the online learning platform was clear. My instructor was very professional and helpful, I liked how he shared his personal life with the class. My peers came from all different careers and especially the ones from the military, I learned from them and they gave me the support to keep believing that I can succeed. Also if I want a good return on my investment, I need to take the right classes and try not to waste my times.


pearl-types-hero-imgIt takes three years for a pearl to form, it takes lots of pressure, therefore, you need to know that every test has an expiration.
The work of a pearl is hiding.
Pearl is expensive.
Pearl has a shine.
Have the discipline to tell everybody your problems during the trials and test.
Have the courage not to cheat during the trials
You will not get any answer during the trials.
Do not rush the process or you could waste precious resources.

Black Women

Black is a pigmentation, nothing less and nothing more. White men like to have a relationship with black women. It takes high self-esteem men to marry black women. Yes, we are very intelligent, strong and witty like other women. We do not see others as superior because we know who we are. With the help and right environments, we can do the same as others. Therefore we deserve the same opportunities and wealth as others.
I do not see colors, what I see is whether you are attractive or not too attractive. So I dated all different types of men as long they know how to treat me. I do like men who are intelligent and driven. I do feel more comfortable around men before, but now since I work with women, I can get along with different of women also.

Corporal Punishment

So many people are still so accustomed to corporal punishment, they can not refrain from it. It also takes lots of discipline to not put a child on timeout when the child’s behavior is not good. If people how to properly speak and work with children, it would help so much with the children’s confidence. For example, you redirect a child when he or she is displaying a bad behavior.


The Way People Around The World Love and Care for their Children

People around the world love and care for their children, mothers pregnancies are the same. However, the environments shaped the social development of the children. All the children were curious about their environment they were born and raised in and they learned from their parents. Most of the children were breastfed which an interdependence perceptive, they bonded with their mothers. Also, older siblings took care of the baby except in one case the older brother hit his sibling constantly and the parents were not around to stop the behavior. The grandparents also help with the babies’ development in some culture. The children liked to play with the family’s pet and they were not afraid of their surrounding which helps them to independent. The baby who was alone for a long time cried and got upset several times. Another baby played with a toilet paper and after the baby ate the paper and there was no adult’s supervision.

Each culture performed the baby’s hygiene differently and some were not too easy to witness. For examples: One culture used breast milk to clean the baby and it might help with great skin. The parent from the USA used water and they interact with the baby at that time also. One mother cleaned the baby with her mouth and spit the germs out, the same culture wiped the baby’s bottom on her leg then took a corncob to clean her leg. Another pour liquid from her mouth to the baby’s bottom to clean it.

Some of the cultures displayed interdependence because they spent times together and they learned from each other. The culture who was nonchalant toward the baby instilled independence in the baby’s lifestyle, the baby was not afraid and the baby learned from nature.

The Character behaviors that lead me to believe he had a disorder

The character behaviors that lead me to believe he had a disorder is the movie IQ the character is Einstein, he was slow in learning how to talk. Also, he had a mild form of echolalia, he repeats phrases to himself two to three times. He was not able to control his temper, his face turns yellow, his nose snow-white and had a temper tantrum. He was great at systemizing and was more impress with it than his ability to emphasize. He did not respect authority.
Einstein did not have respect for authority which is the deviance part of the D’s diagnoses. He had an incident at school which causes him discomfort which leads toward depression and even close to a nervous breakdown. His father business’s suffered a sudden reversal of fortune.

The character had issues with authority and in life, people deal with others at a higher level than them. Some people would be at a level which people delegate to them because he was still young and in school, he had to listen to his teachers and professors.

The character got very depressed after his father lost his wealth which made him had to deal with life in a different manner.
He lost control because of his temper which made him harmful to the people around him. His classmates, his family and anyone that he came in contact with could be in danger if the character lost control of his behavior.

Aggression can be treated with drug or the person can take martial arts, boxing to redirect the anger. Therapy session can also help the person to deal with the behavior by utilizing “Humanistic model”. Also, a behavior modification could help to change his behavior, finally the last treatment could be to give the character mild electric shock.

The character Einstein was Jewish and it is normal for his culture to openly display their anger.

LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

T Davis. (2009). Conceptualizing Psychiatric Disorders Using “Four D’s” of Diagnoses. The Internet Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 1 Number 1.
Gale. (1994). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. Retrieved from

Describe Operant Conditioning.

Operant conditioning takes place in the environment instead of responding to it. This behavior appears more voluntary and it is base on the relationship between stimuli and responses. Reinforcement or punishment can be used in operant conditioning, for example, you get a bonus when you do a great job or you can get a pink slip if you do a bad job. In the ABA program, students get the item which they really desire, it can be fruit snacks, chips, playdoh, time on Ipad. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning is the example of Rat-in-Skinner box. The food is a reinforcer. The best way is to reinforce small sequential steps in a chain of behaviors that resulting good results.

Jack wants his girlfriend, Jill, to show more affection.
Jack can find out what motivates Jill in a positive way. What makes Jill happy? What does Jill like? Jack needs to schedule the reinforcement which he has for Jill, it can be every day.
The behavior modification plan utilizes operant conditioning principle.

Prepare a behavior modification plan in which you effectively utilize operant conditioning principles to change the behavior of the targeted individual(s).
Clearly identify and describe suitable reinforcers or punishers to attain your desired outcome.
Example: If I want my son to eat his vegetables (i.e., increase the desired behavior), I could do several things.
If he eats his vegetables, I could apply a positive reinforcer by adding something he does like, such as screen time; alternatively, I could apply a negative reinforcer by taking away something he does not like, such as one of his weekly chores.
If he does not eat his vegetables, I could apply a positive punisher by adding something he does not like, such as a new weekly chore; alternatively, I could apply a negative punisher by taking away something he does like, such as screen time.
Defend your use of reinforcement and/or punishment as applied to the scenario. Why did you choose it? Why do you expect it to work?
Apply your knowledge of ethical considerations as relevant to operant conditioning.

Mistakes That Cost Money

1) No partnership agreement
You need agreement on paper based on much money the person invest in the business and what understand should make for accepting new partnership or if a partner wants to leave the business.
2) The issues that may happen when friends become clients
Have contracts and invoices, and make sure the person knows that business is business. No financial favors for friends who become clients.
3) Have a separate business and private bank accounts
Require two signatures for every check and transfer so all parties know where the money is going.
4) Accept the right business partners
The partners need to be honest, responsible and business savvy.
5) Do not allow outsiders to cloud your vision
People might tell you to leave your partners and go solo. The more money the business is doing the more you get tempted to leave your partners.
6) Family employees in the business
Only employ family members who skill that can help the business.
7) Not understand the legal form
For example Limited partnership, the partner is not liable for the company’s debts but still, own part of the business. General partnership, the partner is responsible for all company debts and the daily operations of the business.
8) Talking about business when you are home or with friends or family members
When you get home, it is better to keep business talk outside of the home. Make personal time a priority and leave business talk separate.