My client believes her migraine happened because of the car accident, the impact of the car was hard which result of her whiplash. Her type of locus of control is internal and if her locus of control was high she would off have better health outcomes. The client is aware that if he or she continues to take a painkiller, the likeliness of the client to become addictive to the pills will increase. The painkiller will damage her health. Our individual locus of control is the extent to which we perceive that we are in control over those things that we are capable of influencing. Marsh & Richards, 1987; Rotter, (1966)
Pain is a way that your body tells you something is wrong and it has the psychological, emotional and biological effect. Exercise would be the best technique to reduce the pain for this patient. The exercise needs to be low impacts like yoga, walking, swimming, and stretchings. Bruns & Kerns, (2013).
According to the experimental pain studies, African Americans have a lower tolerance for pain than Non-Hispanic Whites. Indians have a much lower threshold for thermal pain than Non-Hispanic Whites. The age range is 12-78 and the result for whites is 274 and Sd for other group is 273.
Although people often think of pain a purely physical sensation, pain has biological, psychological and emotional factors. Furthermore, chronic pain
can cause feelings such as anger, hopelessness, sadness, and
anxiety. To treat pain effectively, you must address its physical,
emotional and psychological aspects. Bruns, D, & Kerns, R. D.(2013).
Pain can be managed by our breathing because it influences how much we can deal with it. Experimental study show relaxation as a way for pain perception. Deep and slow breathing is a relaxation technique in the treatment of chronic pain. For example, when women are giving birth, they learned to take a deep breath and then push, if they did not take the epidural before a high level of contraction, breathing techniques help with the pain. Busch, Kern, Haas, Hajak, Eichhammer, (2012).
Bruns, D., & Kerns, R. D. (2013). Managing chronic pain.Retrieved from:http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/pain-management.pdf
Busch, V., Magerl, W., Kern, U., Haas, J., Hajak, G., & Eichhammer, P. (2012).
Rahim-Williams, B., Riley, J. L., III, Williams, A. K. K., & Fillingim, R. B. (2012).