Category Archives: Relationship

Faith

Undifferentiated Faith:

This is a pre-stage because it begins prior to language. In this stage, the seeds of trust, courage, hope, and love are fused together and help to minimize anxiety from fear of abandonment and deprivation in an infant’s environment. At this stage, trust and the relationship with parents or a primary care giver form the foundation of later faith development. Transition from this stage begins as language and thought develop.

Intuitive-Projective Faith:

This stage is a time of fantasy and imitation. Children are influenced by examples, actions, and stories of care giving adults. Children’s imaginative processes are uninhibited by logical thought. At this stage, the child has a first sense of self-awareness and the strong taboos families establish around death and sex. The strength of this stage is the imagination and the interest in rich stories that provide images and symbols for their feelings and story and the ultimate conditions of existence. Transition from this stage occurs as concrete thinking develops. Children begin to make a distinction between what is real and what is imaginary. Mythic-Literal Faith: At this stage children construct a more orderly and dependable world. School-aged children begin to internalize the stories, beliefs, and observances of the communities to which they belong. The source of authority moves beyond parents to teachers and friends. Beliefs are adopted literally as are moral rules and attitudes. Stories are still a prominent way of understanding, but symbols are interpreted in a literal way. At this stage, there are right and wrong ways of behaving. Transition from this stage occurs when the child (or even some adults) begin to see contradictions in the community’s stories and myths. Literalism begins to break down and paves the way to see another’s point of view that might be different.

Synthetic-Conventional Faith:

The first of the adult stages of faith is the synthetic-conventional. It begins in adolescence and continues through young adulthood. At this stage, individuals can reflect on past experiences to better understand what they mean. A person’s identity at this stage is shaped by roles and relationships; authority resides outside the self. Much of what a person believes at this stage has been uncritically adopted from family, background, and the surrounding culture. Expectations and judgments of others play a role in shaping how people make sense of their experiences. At this stage, people have not critically examined their values and beliefs. The beginning of a transition to the next stage often occurs when a person has a conflict with the established norms, such as wondering why one’s family approves of dating only certain kinds of people, or encountering people with different values and beliefs and questioning how people come to believe what they do. Although this stage starts in adolescence, some adults remain at this stage and do not progress to the next stage. Transition from this stage may come from contradictions among valued authority figures or critical reflection on how one’s own beliefs came to be.

Individuative-Reflective Faith:

In this stage, there is a shift from less reliance on external authority to more reliance on one’s own authority. People begin to question the assumptions they have made about their values and beliefs and test whether or not they are still valid. In this process, they assume responsibility for what they believe. The person’s worldview is no longer defined solely by worldviews of family or friends, and the group has less influence on values and beliefs. An individual is freer to choose friends based on her values and beliefs. People may become disillusioned with what they had formerly believed. During this time of questioning, individuals who have had a strong faith tradition may leave it for another tradition or no tradition at all. If they don’t leave it, they accept it after critically reflecting on it. This stage can occur from age 20 to age 40, but like the previous stage, some people stay at this stage for the remainder of their lives. Transition from this stage often represents an upheaval in one’s life. Disillusionment with one’s beliefs and a sense of flatness or sterility signal a readiness for something new.

Conjunctive Faith:

This stage of faith development moves outward, away from preoccupation with the self. There is an acceptance of paradox—that something can be both positive and negative, restraining and liberating. At this stage, there is more of an acceptance that life is a mystery and that values and beliefs cannot be sorted into tidy categories of good and bad. There is an understanding that there might be more than one way of understanding truth and this allows for more tolerance and acceptance of others. The limitations of faith traditions are more apparent. The desire for balance may lead to more of an interest in community and service to others. Fowler’s research suggests that it is rare for people to reach this stage before middle age; very few people transition to the next stage.

Universalizing Faith:

This stage of faith is so rare that Fowler was able to document only one case in his research. People at this stage live based on the principles that they have developed over their lifetime. They are highly individual and at the same time are devoted to the welfare of others and social justice. They challenge the status quo without regard for their own welfare. People like Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mother Teresa are said to have lived out this stage of faith. 

Reference:

Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2019). Understanding development: A lifespan perspective. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Advertisements

Boost Your Blog: How to use Twitter to drive massive traffic to your website


 Boost Your Blog: How to use Twitter to drive massive traffic to your website
By Nika Stewart, @NikaStewart Twitter + Blog = Business Success!A blog is an effective tool for 
driving website trafficincreasing your expert status, and showing off your company’s brand and value. But to enjoy these benefits, you obviously need your target audience to come to your blog
and read your articles.
So how can you get more eyeballs on your blog?Twitter is one of the best platforms for driving blog traffic. If you apply the tips below, your Twitter account will become a vehicle in which you gently
transport your social media followers to your website, transforming them from Intrigued Prospect to
Loyal Fan (and ultimately… Happy Customer).
Tweak (and tweet) Your Title
It’s common to simply post a blog title with a link:10 Easy Ways to Save Money on Your Heating Bill:
http://www.mylink.com/articleI give this post a 5 out of 10. To make it better, tweak your title to sound less automated and more like a conversational prompt. Get rid of the initial caps and rephrase it:Paying too much for heating? Here are 10 ways to save big: http://www.mylink.com/articleMy newest article gives you 10 easy ways to save money on your heating bill -> http://www.mylink.com/articleSave money right away on your
heating bills with these 10 simple tips: www.mylink.com/articleThese tweets are more fluent and
twitter-friendly. And you can get more than one tweet from one title!
Grab a quote (or two or three)A super simple way to create tweets from your blog is to take quotes
directly from your article. Tweet them out with links back to the blog post.  You can paraphrase, shorten, or add hashtags for more effective delivery.In addition, pick some thought-provoking lines from
your article and turn them into graphic quotes. Typorama is my current fave phone app for creating
quick and easy typographic designs.
Be a Good *Tipper*What are people really searching for when they choose to click a link on Twitter? Valuable Information! Tips. Secrets. Guidelines. Hints. Yes, people want helpful ideas. Take the great
tips that you have already written in your article and turn them into tweets.
More is More: Get the most out of your tweets
Don’t make the mistake of writing just one tweet per article.  You spent all that time composing your brilliance; make sure it gets out to as many people as possible.  A good rule of thumb is to create 5 – 10 tweets per article.
Post Often and ForeverThe biggest mistake I see when people tweet out their blog is that they tweet it once.  All that work for one tweet (which has a very short lifespan) is a crying shame!  99% of your
followers will miss your post if it isn’t repeated.  Set up a schedule to release each blog article’s tweets consistently, for as long as the article is relevant. This will keep your Twitter content full, and increase your blog traffic.If you use these simple techniques, you’ll increase targeted traffic to your website
from Twitter. Wanna know how I know? The Ghost Tweeting account managers use these exact
guidelines for creating tweets from each blog article for every single Twitter client we have.  We see tweets driving traffic to blogs all day every day. (We can do this for you, too.
 See details on our Twitter Buzz program here)And now that you know how to write tweets from your articles, keep these tips in mind when creating your stories in the first place. It will help you to turn your articles into tweets that much quicker, accelerating the process of driving traffic to your blog.

Learn How to Manage Your Time With These 5 Steps


By Rhett Power @rhettpower

Your dream has always been to be your own boss. To do business the way you knew it should be
done. To offer a great service or product. To stand behind your promise. To make a difference. Time management is one of the biggest challenges you face as an entrepreneur. You may have no resources other than yourself and your idea, so it seems logical that you have to keep working harder and
harder. You’re excited about your future, yet you’re already exhausted.So how do you get it all done?
How can you be sure you are making progress? Take a step back. Get a cup of coffee and answer the
following questions.
Do I have a master plan?This is a crucial question. Where do you want to be in one year, three years, five years? Write it all down, then chunk it down. Start by making a list your goals for each year.
Be specific: How will you get business? Pay for things? Then break these goals down by month, then by week. Now you have a concrete way to make progress. Each day, look at the week’s list and get
busy on the tasks.
How will I spend today?You know what needs to be done today, and how it will move you forward.
Assign times to each task, to keep you on track. Spending four hours on a short blog post because you got sidetracked clicking on interesting links is not useful. Give the blog post an hour and hunker down. Assign times for lunch, exercise, and interruptions. Just know how your day is budgeted.
Does this task pertain to my goal?As you consider your time, it’s important to use it wisely.
I suggest that at least half your time be spent engaged in activities that produce most of your results.
Am I avoiding distractions?Stay off social media while you work. Tell your family that your home office is out of bounds. Don’t check email every hour. Only take business calls during your scheduled
work time. The easiest way to lose control of your day is to let time get nibbled away by distractions. When you discipline yourself, you’ll have better focus.
Is this the best use of my time?As the company owner and leader, you want to have oversight of
everything. In the beginning, it’s how you measure your progress. But your time is precious, so ask
yourself if your activity is in the interest of success. Do you need to be putting stamps on mailings?
Writing every blog post? Making a spreadsheet of contacts? As soon as you can determine what to
delegate, you give yourself the gift of time. Time that can be spent growing your business.The hard
work will never go away. And because you love your business, that’s good news. When you learn to
manage your time and be more productive, you can do what you do best: Be successful!

5 Life Lessons That Made Me a Better Entrepreneur


 
by Valerie Svenningsen @comforcare – ComForcare Certified Senior Advisor  
Throughout the years, I’ve gathered countless tidbits of advice from my parents, friends, colleagues
and mentors. As I’ve learned about trust, responsibility and happiness, I’ve realized that these lessons extend well beyond my personal life. Today, I often find myself using professional advice as a way to confront a personal issue I might run into, or looking to personal philosophies to help solve an
obstacle in the office.Here are five lessons that can be applied both in life and in business that I find
myself using regularly:
Establish and maintain trust. Without trust, there is simply no foundation to move forward in a
relationship, whether it is professional or personal. For a business owner especially, I find that it’s
crucial to gain the trust of my clients in order to create and maintain a loyal clientele. Especially in the case of owning an at-home senior care service business, such as ComForcare Senior Services, my
clients need to be able to trust that their caregiver is providing them with the most personalized
attention and care they can experience in the field.
 Listen. Take the time to fully listen to what people are saying to you. We may have great ideas and
advice of our own to give, but I assure you that if you truly listen when someone is speaking to you,
you are bound to get so much more out of the conversation.You will get a better understanding of
where they are coming from and the things that they value most. It takes more than one person to
have a constructive discussion of thoughts and ideas, so try to resist the urge of speak outside of
your turn.
Accept liability. No one wants to be associated with an individual who never takes responsibility for his or her actions. Everyone should pull their own weight, own up to their mistakes, and learn how to grow from them. At work, the more responsibility that you take on, the more respect you will earn
from your cohorts. In order to create successful and lasting professional and personal relationships, it is crucial to hold yourself accountable your actions and those around you will treat you with more respect because of it.
You have to give to get.It’s a simple saying, but remains true across every medium in my life.
Whether it’s interacting with my colleagues or spending quality time with family and friends, I feel
that it is my obligation to give them my upmost attention and care in order to be able to anticipate
the same kind of reverence in return.
Live each day doing something that makes you happy.I know we hear this piece of advice often,
but many of us don’t follow it and we’re only hurting ourselves in the long run. If we do what we love, it will show in our work and we will be happier and more thoughtful people because of it. Even if it
forces you to leave your comfort zone, get out there and put your full heart into newfound hobbies,
work projects and campaigns. I promise that you will be a happier individual and your good vibes will rub off on everyone you encounter.So, the next time you gain some great words of wisdom, think
about the ways it can help you in both your life and at the office. You’d be surprise how many things
you learn that can guide you in every aspect of your life.  

Behaviors

Children and some adults need attention and the way they ask for it can be through behaviors, it can a good or bad move. Imagine you had a long day and you need to rest, an adult person just scream like a child and you the other person can ask for what he or she want in a way that is not detrimental for you. The response is to remain calm and tell the person that you had a long day and what is going on with him or her. You can ask ” what is the matter?” And you can help the person with will result in a win win for all. I am not sure if I can continue to live the way I live now.

Another person knows what I use and where I put the item and the person remove or hide the item.

You have the power to create


By Don Miguel Ruiz from “The Mastery of Love” @donMiguelRuiz 
You have the power to create.
Your power is so strong that whatever you believe comes true.
You create yourself, whatever you believe you are.
You are the way you are because that is what you believe about yourself. 
Your whole reality, everything you believe, is your creation.
You have the same power as any other human in the world. 
The main difference between you and someone else is how you apply your power, what you create with your power.
You may be similar to others in many ways, but no one in the whole world lives their life the way you do.
Have a GREAT day and continue doing what you LOVE to do.

The Planning Secrets Of Six Super Successful Women

byBETH MACDONALD

When I look at successful women like Victoria Beckham and JK Rowling, there are so many mysteries about their lives that I want to know. How do they make sure they’re always on time? Do they use a team to schedule their lives or do they try to be as independent as possible? I know from experience that busy doesn’t always mean productive and that it can be incredibly difficult to keep yourself on track with all the goals you want to achieve if you don’t have the dedication and inner fire within yourself to get it done.

That’s why we’ve started our new weekly series, where we research how successful women plan their day and actually share their secrets for success. The results have been illuminating, inspiring, and incredibly motivating. They get such a lot done during their day and make no excuses.

But how do they actually schedule their lives?

How do they make sure they’re hitting their deadlines, whether it’s to submit writing or just to work out as much as they possibly can?

1. They schedule their work around their lives

@michelleobama

Former first lady Michelle Obama had a rigorous schedule during her time at The White House, not only did she have tons of presidential duties, she also had to make sure that she had time for her own initiatives and her personal time. To make this possible, she would always fill in the calendar with her personal life before anything else.

“Starting every year, before I booked anything, agreed to any meetings or conferences, we’d sit down with my assistant and we looked at our lives first,” Michelle has said, “We put potlucks in there, we put date nights in there, I put my workouts, we put our vacations on the calendar first, we put sports things and summers. We planned that out first, and then what was left would be left for work.”

It’s important to flip your mindset about scheduling your year. You don’t have to start with things that are conventionally important, instead, you can put yourself first.

“We let work inundate everything. We have to start setting the priority of allowing people to put their lives before their work.” If you managed to get your hands on the Goals 2019 Diary, you should use this opportunity to start planning your day like Michelle Obama, put your vacations down, write down your date nights, dinners, evenings with your friends before you commit to any other work-related goals.

2. They don’t delegate the important stuff

@oprah

Oprah laid out her perfect day, spending a lot of time meditating, in nature, and working out. She’s lucky that on a more chilled day she only needs to dedicate a few hours to work, but she still wants to be absolutely in control of everything she needs to do.

“I try to take care of any business in the early afternoon so the rest of the day is mine…Having grown up poor, I can never completely turn over all my money matters to anyone else. It’s important for me to know how much the electricity bill is, to know what’s coming in, what’s going out. I never want to be one of those people who delegates that task to someone else and then one day is surprised to find out how much money they do or don’t have. I go down the line of all the business stuff I need to take care of and usually get it done completely within two hours.” she explained to Harpers Bazaar.

The fantasy of letting someone else take control of all your to-dos is often 100% better than the reality, letting go of what you’re responsible for can get you in trouble and as Oprah says, it’s always better to stay in control.

3. They make time to learn and grow

@the_press_tour

Emma Watson is a major bookworm, she hides books around in public places, often talks about books and book club and has completed so many reading challenges it’s crazy. She reads feminist classics like Women Who Run With Wolves and The Vagina Monologues, but in order to schedule her day and live her best life, Emma spends a lot of time looking for self-improvement books.

“I am a sucker for anything that promises to change my life,” Watson says. You can’t expect to organize your entire life and be the best version of yourself if you don’t know where to start. If you don’t know what positive changes you should be making or the routines you could be following. Emma reads voraciously and is always looking for new perspectives and new things to try, it helps her continue to push herself to be the best she can possibly be. Make sure to plan some time for learning and developing, try new things and improve yourself. You never know which self-improvement book you’ll pick up next that will change your life, but it might be one of the ones on our list.

4. They strive for perfection 

@beyonce

It’s no surprise that Beyonce strives for perfection, she didn’t get to where she is by giving mediocre performances and expecting second best from herself, but you might be surprised to know that she is so focused on achieving the best that she reportedly watches her performances back, making notes of any mistakes she spots or improvements she wants to make. She then sends an email to her team with the things she’s noticed.

You can’t learn unless you make mistakes, Beyonce knows that too, which is why she’ll often leap into something and make sure to reflect on it and check for mistakes. When you’re planning, make time to evaluate your performance and reflect on your day or week. It’s easy to do this with the Getting Stuff Done planner, you can simply create a list of improvements to make and things you thought went well.

5. They surround themselves with go-getters

@badgalriri

Rihanna didn’t get to where she is by resting on her laurels. She felt like her label was taking advantage of her so she went out of the way to change that, she felt as though there want enough representation for people of color in the makeup industry so she launched Fenty beauty and released hundreds of shades. She’s constantly changing the game, and she attributes that to growing, knowing how to speak up and spending time with go-getters.

“Spend time with people who know how to use their days well. Just as iron sharpens iron, positive people will inspire you to be positive.” Rihanna once said. And wise as it sounds, it’s true. If you want to plan your perfect life, you need to surround yourself with people who will motivate you to embrace it and achieve it, rather than people who don’t understand your journey or why you’re working towards it.

6. They just go for it

Photography Debra Hurford Brown © J.K. Rowling 2018

J.K Rowling usually hates motivational lists, she says if she had a ten-step program for success she would have shared it by now, but the one piece of advice she can give is that you just have to start. She started writing Harry Potter the evening after the idea came into her head, but those first few pages were not good enough to be published at all. But she just did it, and that’s the secret to planning the perfect day. Just get it done, sit down with it, stop making excuses and do it. Whether it’s working out, eating healthy, writing a novel, or starting a business. Just do it!

J.K Rowling’s secret weapon is always a notebook and a pen, “Every time I enter a post office or a newsagents I experience an irrational urge to buy loads of pens and notebooks, even though I’ve got plenty at home. This has been going on since childhood. I just can’t stand the sight of them sitting there, unfulfilled.” She fills the notebooks up with everything from ideas to notes for novels and knows that writing it down is the best way to get her to stick to a plan.

5 Telltale Signs You Are Treating Social Media Marketing as an Afterthought


 By Nika Stewart @NikaStewart 
Studies show that the biggest mistake entrepreneurs and businesses make on social media is not investing enough. Though business owners and thought leaders agree that a good social media marketing strategy would be extremely beneficial, many have failed to make it a priority. Companies that invest time, energy, and resources in social media marketing are reaping the many tangible and non-tangible benefits it brings: magnified leadership status, global visibility, increased website traffic, higher sales, media attention, and so much more. Are you investing enough? Or are you treating social media marketing as an afterthought? Here are 5 telltale signs that you may be treating social media marketing as an afterthought (and of course, what you can do about it!)1. You let a whole day go by without posting on any network. A whole day without marketing your business online? That’s crazy! Your inconsistency shows your audience that you aren’t trustworthy. Even if it is subconscious, your potential clients lose faith in your ability to provide consistency in other aspects of your business.
Solution: Use an online tool such as Hootsuite to pre-schedule posts each week. While you still want to make time each day for engagement and relationship-building, you can rest comfortably knowing that your broadcasts are providing steady cover, day in and out. If you can’t even find the time to schedule your posts, consider outsourcing your social media marketing. 2. Your posts all happen in clusters. Do you have a steady stream of posts appearing throughout the day, every day? Or do you find yourself trying to make up for a week of absence by spending three hours in a single clip jumping to several networks? If the latter is more your style, you have no system in place for getting visibility and building relationships with potential customers. By treating social media marketing as an afterthought, you are neglecting simple activities that can grow your business. Instead of cluttering your posts, you want your messages to be sprinkled throughout each day.
Solution: Devote time each week or each morning to pre-schedule your posts so that they appear every hour or two. And take five to ten minutes each day to respond, comment, and share others’ posts (Did you know? These engagement posts also can be scheduled to appear over the course of the day, too). 3. You post only when you have something to promote. Many entrepreneurs say that they have no reason to post on social media because they have nothing to promote. This reasoning goes against the spirit (and effectiveness) of social media marketing. Unless you’ve built trust, provided consistent value, and established strong connections with your community, promoting a product or service on social media will yield abysmal results. Those who are givers on social media (delivering value, sharing, showing kindnesses) see the best results when it comes time to promote a product or service.
Solution: Learn to dig your well BEFORE you are thirsty. If you wait until you have something to promote on social media, it is already too late. It takes time to build strong relationships, so begin now. And don’t stop. Then when you have sometime to promote, your contacts will be more likely to listen and respond. 4. You broadcast only.For social media marketing to be effective, it is absolutely necessary to engage, acknowledge, thank, and share others’ posts. Your audience can’t connect with you if all you do is broadcast your message. They want to relate, associate, join your cause. They will jump on board if they see you as an ally.
Solution: Think of your social media marketing as an interactive workshop, rather than a one-sided lecture. Ask opinions, respond to questions and comments, support others by sharing their posts, show appreciation and thank people when they share and comment. 5. Your social media marketing is tactical, rather than strategic. Your posts, engagement, and relationship building appear to be haphazard, rather than planned. Proven tactics are important, but without following an overall strategy, you don’t have specific goals to reach, and you are constantly reinventing the wheel, attempting new things, and starting over.
Solution: Decide on your main social media marketing goals. Based on these objectives, map out a plan of action, and stick to it – consistently. You will be rewarded.

5 Tips to Master the Delicate Art of Delegation


 By Clark Valberg @ClarkValberg Control freak. Workaholic. Credit hog.
Managers who fall into one or more of these groups usually have one thing in common: a refusal to delegate. Often, though, these managers are none of the above. They just haven’t mastered the emotional balance of delegation. Entrepreneurs and leaders are programmed to despise laziness. That trait is a big part of why they’ve succeeded. With that comes a level of guilt — if they can do more, they should. And in a new business, there’s always more to be done. Despite how painful it may be, delegation is a critical skill all leaders must master to be successful. Not only will delegation give you more brain space and time to devote to doing what you do best — visionary thought — but you’ll also empower your team. Being self-aware enough to recognize this is step one. It’s hard to do, but is anything worth doing ever not? Humility is a sorely underrated trait for a leader. By trusting your team and accepting that you can’t do it all, you’ll accomplish much more as a group than you could have ever accomplished alone. Here are some insights into how to find the right balance for you.1. Be thoughtful about what you can hand off. Take a clear stock of the tasks you have on hand and assess which ones aren’t using your time and skills to their fullest. For those tasks that emerge as delegate-able, incorporate delegation into your existing workflow via staff development and project management plans. You don’t want delegation to be just another task you have to do, but rather a natural part of your existing processes.2. Choose tasks that prioritize your teammates’ careers with increased responsibility. Every leader knows the most successful businesses are the ones with the strongest teams. For your team members to grow individually, they must have opportunities to prove themselves. You may worry that if you empower them and expand their skill sets, they’ll just leave. To that concern I’d say, you should be more worried if you don’t — and they stay. Delegate tasks that push your team members outside of their comfort zone and challenge them to reach a new level of creativity and leadership.3. Channel the time and intensity you would have devoted to the job at hand and redirect that time into educating someone else. How many times have you felt like you were too busy to train someone? Yet, it’s in training others that we cultivate confidence in handing off a task, and show our team members we value their continued growth. Effective teaching and mentorship is its own worthwhile skill you can practice here — when it starts to feel difficult, remind yourself that not only are you helping your employees grow, you’re stretching and strengthening your own teaching muscles, too.4. Get out of the way. I tell my teams to “make it awesome” and let them run with it. I’ve found they do best when they know I have a high expectation but want them to get there without hand holding. Instead of requiring people to do the work exactly how you would have, respect and appreciate the varied styles your teams use to get to the end result. Make sure the technical aspects of the task are clearly defined but allow room for independent thought. If you’ve hired well, your mentorship will plant the seed for some great ideas you may never have even considered.5. Persevere. Recognize that teaching and learning is not always a linear process, and it doesn’t happen smoothly or overnight. The person you chose to delegate to might not grasp exactly what you’re saying the first time around. They may put in a good faith effort but fall short. Don’t use this as an excuse to snatch responsibility back. Use it as a learning tool to recognize where the process went wrong and how it can be made better. Being a self-aware leader means acknowledging that you aren’t a superhero. You’ve intentionally hired your team members to bring skills to the table that you lack. Use smart delegation techniques to grow those employees — and watch your business grow as a result.

The Interconnection of social problems

Criminal sanctions and victimization work to form a system of disadvantage that perpetuates stratification and poverty.
“A sanction is a kind of response meant to reward or punish behavior. Positive sanctions reward conforming behavior, and negative sanctions punish behavior that violates norms. Positive sanctions increase the likelihood that a particular behavior will continue. For example, teachers provide students with positive sanctions by giving higher grades for better work. Good grades reward students and increase the likelihood that they will want to continue to learn and achieve in school. In contrast, negative sanctions punish behavior with the goal of stopping it. For example, police officers give negative sanctions when ticketing drivers for violating traffic laws. Drivers who violate traffic laws put others in danger. Tickets decrease the likelihood that drivers will take risks on the road. Tickets can help society members remain safe by reducing reckless behavior.” Korgen and Furst, (2012)

Punishment impacts individuals convicted of felonies, as well as their families, peer groups, neighborhoods, and racial group.
” Between 1980 and 1996, the population of drug offenders in state prisons grew by more than 16% annually. Mandatory sentencing laws created racial inequities as Blacks and Hispanics-Latinos have been the majority of those arrested and imprisoned for drug offenses.” Korgen and Furst, (2012)

After controlling for population differences, African Americans are incarcerated approximately seven times as often as Whites.
“For example, a 2009 Pew Social Demographic study revealed that Black and Hispanic Americans have far less confidence than Whites in their local police to effectively and fairly address the violence problem.” Korgen and Furst, (2012)

Variation in criminal punishment is linked to economic deprivation.
As the number of felons and former felons rises, collateral sanctions play an ever-larger role in racial and ethnic stratification, operating as an interconnected system of disadvantage.
“Current research has also begun to disentangle the impact of criminal sanctions from self-selection into crime in other arenas of
social life, such as the family, educational attainment, and civic engagement.” Wheelock and Uggen, (2016)

References:
Wheelock, D. & Uggen, C. (2006). Race, poverty, and punishment: The impact of criminal sanctions on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequality (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Working Papers: National Poverty Center. Retrieved from http://npc.umich.edu