The Way People Around The World Love and Care for their Children

People around the world love and care for their children, mothers pregnancies are the same. However, the environments shaped the social development of the children. All the children were curious about their environment they were born and raised in and they learned from their parents. Most of the children were breastfed which an interdependence perceptive, they bonded with their mothers. Also, older siblings took care of the baby except in one case the older brother hit his sibling constantly and the parents were not around to stop the behavior. The grandparents also help with the babies’ development in some culture. The children liked to play with the family’s pet and they were not afraid of their surrounding which helps them to independent. The baby who was alone for a long time cried and got upset several times. Another baby played with a toilet paper and after the baby ate the paper and there was no adult’s supervision.

Each culture performed the baby’s hygiene differently and some were not too easy to witness. For examples: One culture used breast milk to clean the baby and it might help with great skin. The parent from the USA used water and they interact with the baby at that time also. One mother cleaned the baby with her mouth and spit the germs out, the same culture wiped the baby’s bottom on her leg then took a corncob to clean her leg. Another pour liquid from her mouth to the baby’s bottom to clean it.

Some of the cultures displayed interdependence because they spent times together and they learned from each other. The culture who was nonchalant toward the baby instilled independence in the baby’s lifestyle, the baby was not afraid and the baby learned from nature.

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The Character behaviors that lead me to believe he had a disorder

The character behaviors that lead me to believe he had a disorder is the movie IQ the character is Einstein, he was slow in learning how to talk. Also, he had a mild form of echolalia, he repeats phrases to himself two to three times. He was not able to control his temper, his face turns yellow, his nose snow-white and had a temper tantrum. He was great at systemizing and was more impress with it than his ability to emphasize. He did not respect authority.
Einstein did not have respect for authority which is the deviance part of the D’s diagnoses. He had an incident at school which causes him discomfort which leads toward depression and even close to a nervous breakdown. His father business’s suffered a sudden reversal of fortune.

The character had issues with authority and in life, people deal with others at a higher level than them. Some people would be at a level which people delegate to them because he was still young and in school, he had to listen to his teachers and professors.

The character got very depressed after his father lost his wealth which made him had to deal with life in a different manner.
He lost control because of his temper which made him harmful to the people around him. His classmates, his family and anyone that he came in contact with could be in danger if the character lost control of his behavior.

Aggression can be treated with drug or the person can take martial arts, boxing to redirect the anger. Therapy session can also help the person to deal with the behavior by utilizing “Humanistic model”. Also, a behavior modification could help to change his behavior, finally the last treatment could be to give the character mild electric shock.

The character Einstein was Jewish and it is normal for his culture to openly display their anger.

References:
LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

T Davis. (2009). Conceptualizing Psychiatric Disorders Using “Four D’s” of Diagnoses. The Internet Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 1 Number 1.
Gale. (1994). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu

Describe Operant Conditioning.

Operant conditioning takes place in the environment instead of responding to it. This behavior appears more voluntary and it is base on the relationship between stimuli and responses. Reinforcement or punishment can be used in operant conditioning, for example, you get a bonus when you do a great job or you can get a pink slip if you do a bad job. In the ABA program, students get the item which they really desire, it can be fruit snacks, chips, playdoh, time on Ipad. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning is the example of Rat-in-Skinner box. The food is a reinforcer. The best way is to reinforce small sequential steps in a chain of behaviors that resulting good results.

Jack wants his girlfriend, Jill, to show more affection.
Jack can find out what motivates Jill in a positive way. What makes Jill happy? What does Jill like? Jack needs to schedule the reinforcement which he has for Jill, it can be every day.
The behavior modification plan utilizes operant conditioning principle.

Prepare a behavior modification plan in which you effectively utilize operant conditioning principles to change the behavior of the targeted individual(s).
Clearly identify and describe suitable reinforcers or punishers to attain your desired outcome.
Example: If I want my son to eat his vegetables (i.e., increase the desired behavior), I could do several things.
If he eats his vegetables, I could apply a positive reinforcer by adding something he does like, such as screen time; alternatively, I could apply a negative reinforcer by taking away something he does not like, such as one of his weekly chores.
If he does not eat his vegetables, I could apply a positive punisher by adding something he does not like, such as a new weekly chore; alternatively, I could apply a negative punisher by taking away something he does like, such as screen time.
Defend your use of reinforcement and/or punishment as applied to the scenario. Why did you choose it? Why do you expect it to work?
Apply your knowledge of ethical considerations as relevant to operant conditioning.

Mistakes That Cost Money

1) No partnership agreement
You need agreement on paper based on much money the person invest in the business and what understand should make for accepting new partnership or if a partner wants to leave the business.
2) The issues that may happen when friends become clients
Have contracts and invoices, and make sure the person knows that business is business. No financial favors for friends who become clients.
3) Have a separate business and private bank accounts
Require two signatures for every check and transfer so all parties know where the money is going.
4) Accept the right business partners
The partners need to be honest, responsible and business savvy.
5) Do not allow outsiders to cloud your vision
People might tell you to leave your partners and go solo. The more money the business is doing the more you get tempted to leave your partners.
6) Family employees in the business
Only employ family members who skill that can help the business.
7) Not understand the legal form
For example Limited partnership, the partner is not liable for the company’s debts but still, own part of the business. General partnership, the partner is responsible for all company debts and the daily operations of the business.
8) Talking about business when you are home or with friends or family members
When you get home, it is better to keep business talk outside of the home. Make personal time a priority and leave business talk separate.

Women in Advertisement

Women in advertisement mostly apply seduction to attract people to buy the product they are selling. Advertising sells mostly because of photoshop, it allows them to look thin, without blemishes and the images need to be perfect. Most of the pictures are not the true pictures, they are made up. Young girls are been bombarded by the image of long hair, white or light skin and thin body. Women look as sex objects which shoe big breast, thin waist and lots of makeup. The media do not show women as strong and intelligent. Women need to be young and desirable and though to think of themselves as objects. Most of the women in advertising are white which teach consumers that white women are better than black women. If a woman is not blond with white or pale skin some people do not consider them beautiful. Women who do not think they are good enough develop low self-esteem.
In some of the USA, they hired mostly the typical white women however they have to hire at least two black women to be in compliance with the law. Some are transparent that is is a shame. Media tried to use persuasion to brainwash people to believe their unhealthy negative mindset.
American culture does not use men as sex object as much as women. Men are represented as strong, intelligent leader. Men committed violence because of sexual ads in the media.
This advertising video depicted a beautiful woman who is also a well-known actress with a great body, she used her body to keep the audience glued to the screen. She is the ideal woman, white, long straight hair and a perfect body. Her sex appeal is way up because she used her body, her voice to make an impact on the people who are watching the commercial.

References:
Jean Kilbourne, (2014). The dangerous ways ads see women.
Retrieved from https://youtu.be/Uy8yLaoWybk
LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
Media influence, fashion, and shopping: a gender perspective
Shephard, Arlesa; Pookulangara, Sanjukta; Kinley, Tammy R.; Josiam, Bharath M..(2016). Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management; Bradford Vol. 20, Iss. 1, 4-18.
Media influence: mass vs personal

 

4 D’s Of Diagnoses

One of the inherent difficulties in diagnosing a mental disorder is determining at whatever level a particular trait or problem becomes a clinical diagnosis. An old joke serves well to illustrate this point. Question: “What is the difference between someone who is crazy and someone who is eccentric?” Answer: “About ten million dollars”. This joke is humorous because it reflects the grey lines that define when symptoms rise to the point of classification as a disorder. As such, it also speaks to the difficulty of mental health diagnosis. An individual with many resources may not experience a similar set of emotions, cognitions or behaviors as a problem since it is likely that the person will be afforded latitude that someone with limited resources will not. Every human being experiences a range of problematic emotions, cognitions, and behaviors across the lifespan. When does a problem become a disorder? To answer the question in part, mental health professionals can utilize the “four Ds”, danger, deviance, dysfunction and distress to conceptualize mental disorders 2.

This article will explore in some detail the four “Ds” and how they contribute to psychiatric disorders. Each “D” will be explored through one of the Axis I disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fourth text revised edition [DSM IV-TR] 1.

The first “D” to be discussed is that of deviance. Deviance can primarily understand through formal classification schemes such as those provided in the DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Apart from these, other tests which provide norms for the general population can be helpful to determine a degree of deviation from the norm. Further, clinical interviews can collect information helpful in both these examples. However, many disorders share common patterns of deviance and need to be examined in a differential diagnostic model8.

This “D” can be illustrated using 302.2 Pedophilia, a DSM IV-TR diagnosis in which deviance is the hallmark of the disorder1. Pedophilia is a specific paraphilia, a class of disorders characterized by recurrent intense, sexually arousing fantasies, behaviors or urges. Pedophilia is characterized by recurrent urges, fantasies or behaviors existing over at least 6 months and directed at children 13 years of age or younger. These symptoms must present significant distress or impairment. The individual must be over the age of 16 and 5 years older than the subject of the desire. Seto6 surveyed a number of studies and found that anywhere from three to nine percent of males report some interest in underage children and a number of these studies demonstrated that this interest could be turned into action if the circumstances were right. Thus, those who have the thoughts are either in the minority or in a small minority of males. In addition, he points out that the actual number of males who meet the other criteria of time and intensity is very likely much less than the three to nine percent figure. Given the legal and social attitudes concerning pedophilia, the number of individuals who can be diagnosed with the disorder is difficult to ascertain. The fact that up to nine percent of males may have a sexual interest in children may set an upper limit to the prevalence. This, however, may still be questionable given a potential bias against reporting (e.g., potential respondents would find it taboo to admit to certain tendencies/feelings/thoughts). Females with these propensities are even rarer in the literature as Seto demonstrates. These factors taken together illustrate both the statistical and societal nature of deviance in pedophilia.

A second “D”, dysfunction, is also important to determine the presence of a problem large enough to be considered a diagnosis. Whatever the dysfunction, it must be significant enough to interfere in the individual’s life in some major way. In addition, it is important to look for dysfunction across life domains as they may exist in obvious places as well as less likely places8.

To examine dysfunction, the diagnosis of 296.33 Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, without Psychotic Features is chosen1. This disorder is characterized by two or more episodes of a major depressive episode. When the classification of severe is used, it indicates that this episode has elevated to the point where many it markedly interferes with the individual’s occupational or social life. In order to warrant a diagnosis, this interference must be defined by the presence of a minimum number of the symptom classifications outlined in the criteria. These symptoms will evidence themselves through a negative impact (dysfunction) in multiple areas of the individual’s life. For example, the person will experience a depressed mood for most of the day which will interfere with relationships with others, as easily perceived by outside observers. He/she has a great decrease in pleasure in almost all of the activities of life which will likely make the person avoid many of these, resulting in increasing dysfunction. The individual may experience insomnia or hypersomnia to the point of interfering with daily tasks. He/she will experience marked energy loss and may not have the motivation or energy to do common tasks such as personal hygiene or household maintenance. The person may have a diminished ability to concentrate which interferes with the ability to complete tasks at home and work. When a person has been diagnosed with major depression, it is likely that the individual has experienced some dysfunction in almost every area of life and severe dysfunction in many areas. In fact, in an inquiry by Remick4, many areas of dysfunction were identified in the research. He found that depressive disorders and poor work productivity are related as demonstrated by a threefold increase in the number of sick days in the months preceding the illness for workers with depression compared with coworkers who did not show increases in sick days preceding illness that was not depression. There is evidence that children of women with depression have higher rates of dysfunction in school, are less socially competent, and display lower self-esteem than their classmate’s mothers whose mothers who are not depressed. Finally, depression’s ability to cause life dysfunction becomes evident by the fact that the leading cause of disability among people aged 18 to 44 years is depression.

A third “D”, distress, is related to dysfunction in that it becomes an important way to grade perceptual dysfunction in an individual’s life. This relationship is not always linear. A person can experience a great deal of dysfunction and very little distress or vice versa. The essential component of distress is the extent to which the issue distresses the individual, not the objective measure of the severity of the dysfunction8.

Distress will be explored using the diagnosis of 300.7 Hypochondriasis1. The features of Hypochondriasis consist of a preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has a serious disease. This fear is based on the misinterpretation of an individual’s bodily symptoms. Currently, this diagnosis is classified as a somatoform disorder. However, it also features elements of an anxiety disorder. The distress of the preoccupation of the disorder persists in spite of medical evaluations and reassurance. Salkovskis, Warwick, and Deale5 found that these individuals tend to use considerably more medical resources and tend to be rather intractable in terms of their prognoses. Further, although reassurance that is offered may decrease short-term distress, it increases distress in the long run. Therefore, it seems the more medical reassurance that is sought, the more distress increases. This feature makes the problem of distress a fundamental feature of the disorder. In fact, the researchers found that effective treatments all centered on decreasing the amount of distress experienced by the individual with the disorder. This decrease is accomplished through thought restructuring, to refocus the individual’s attention away from somatic symptoms toward nondistressing thoughts and activities, thus getting the individual to decrease the amount of behavior consumed by the distress. Ultimately, if one can lower the anxiety and distress level, a positive outcome may be more likely.

A fourth “Ds” in danger. To outline this concept more specifically, the danger component consists of two broad themes, danger to self and danger to others. Diagnostically speaking, there is a wide continuum of danger. There is some element of danger in every diagnosis and within each diagnosis, there is a continuum of severity. Once these have been explained in broad strokes one can explore how these are played out in a specific diagnostic picture8.

Danger will be examined using a seemingly benign disorder classified in the DSM IV-TR, 305.10 Nicotine Dependence1. The major features of dangerousness in Nicotine Dependence are the self-inflicted hazards placed on those meeting diagnostic criteria. That being the case, Nicotine Dependence may also be a danger to others through the harmful effects of second-hand smoke. In some substance abuse disorders, danger to self may also be evidenced by vulnerability (a danger that may be inflicted by others), as a result of the usage of the substance. Nicotine Dependence is characterized as a substance abuse disorder and features elements of tolerance and withdrawal. The diagnosis has dangerous physical effects through the health conditions related to it and dangerous mental health effects evidenced by the emotions and behaviors that people exhibit when nicotine is unavailable or when they are trying to quit. Individuals may also avoid activities or situations which negatively impact their lives due to the inability to use the substance. Approximately 80 percent of smokers express the interest in quitting. Thirty-five percent of smokers actually try to quit in any given year, while only five percent are successful. This again illustrates the cognitive dissonance endured by a large number of smokers. With regard to physical dangerousness, an article summarizing a center for disease report, Sibbald7 documented that over eight and a half million Americans are diagnosed with over 12.5 million smoking-related diseases. Moreover, 10 percent of all current and former smokers have a smoking-related chronic disease. These diseases include heart disease, emphysema, stroke, and cancer. Further, 440,000 Americans die prematurely every year due to a smoking-related illness. Clearly, nicotine dependence is a diagnosis wrought with danger.

Though the danger of Nicotine Dependence may obvious given the statistics, it is also clear that other mental illnesses carry substantial elements of danger. This is true even for those diagnosed not involving dependence on chemical substances that negatively impact one’s health. Hiroeh, Mortensen, and Dunn3 followed over 257,000 individuals in the Danish psychiatric register and documented their causes of death. They found that individuals with mental illnesses had a 25 percent higher chance of dying from any unnatural cause, including homicide, suicide, and accidents. Further, they found that almost all psychiatric diagnoses show elevated mortality as compared to the general population. Of all types of unnatural deaths, suicide was the most prevalent. This evidence clearly shows the necessity of assessing danger when conceptualizing a mental diagnosis.

As the “four D’s” have been developed in the literature, some have suggested including a fifth “D”, that of Duration2. Duration becomes important since it can illuminate whether an emotion, cognition or behavior is a fleeting symptom without consequence or is persistent enough for classification. Further, this “D” can sometimes help the clinician differentiate between Axis I disorders. To illustrate this, one can examine the diagnoses of 298.8 Brief Psychotic Disorder, 295.40 Schizophreniform Disorder, and 295.90 Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type1. If an individual presents to the clinician with the necessary symptoms to meet the criteria for 295.90 Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type, without evidence of duration, it will be difficult to accurately diagnose the individual. For instance, if the individual has these symptoms but the symptoms have only lasted one hour, that individual cannot be diagnosed with any of the above disorders. To meet the criteria for Brief Psychotic Disorder, the symptoms must be present for at least one day but not longer than one month. Schizophreniform Disorder becomes a possibility after one month and until six months have passed. After six months of time with this individual exhibiting the necessary symptoms, Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type becomes the only diagnosis available (of the aforementioned) with which the individual can be accurately classified.

Without the clarifying aids of danger, deviance, dysfunction, distress, and duration, separating everyday problems from those that elevate to levels of disorders would be difficult. The four “D’s” are a valuable construct for the clinician to identify the points on a continuum at which human cognition, emotion and behavior change from normal into abnormal and thus can be classified as a psychiatric disorder. They provide assistance to increase diagnostic accuracy and reliability by imparting another framework with which to think about the individual’s experience. The clinician can then use this framework to guide the process of devising an individualized care plan to decrease deviance, dysfunction, distress, danger, and duration of the presenting problems. The four “D’s” cannot provide nor should it be offered as an alternative to the more traditional DSM IV-TR multi-axial diagnostic structure. It can, however, provide a complementing construct to aid the clinician to holistically assess human emotions, cognitions, and behaviors that may constitute mental disorders.

References
1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th text revision ed. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000
2. Comer, RJ. Abnormal Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishing; 2010.
3. Hiroeh U, Mortensen P, Dunn G. Death by homicide, suicide, and other unnatural causes in people with mental illness: a population-based study. The Lancet. 2001; 358(9299): 2110-2112.
4. Remick R. Diagnosis and management of depression in primary care: a clinical update and review. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association. 2002; 167(11): 1253-1260.
5. Salkovskis P, Warwick H, Deale A. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for severe and persistent health anxiety hypochondriasis. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 2003; 3(3): 353-368.
6. Seto M. Pedophilia and sexual offenses against children. Annual Review of Sex Research 2004; 15, 321-361.
7. Sibbald B. Smoking’s morbidity toll estimated in the US. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association 2003; 169(10): 1067.
8. Wilmhurst L. Essentials of Child Psychopathology. Hoboken: NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
Author Information
Timothy O. Davis, Ph.D., LSCSW
Social Work Practicum Director, Fort Hays State University Hays, Kansas U.S.A.

Success Patterns For School

Here are just a few of the strategies that have worked for other students in their quest to find the balance between work, school, and life.

Finding a quiet place to study (often outside the house) where they can work uninterrupted.
Minimizing digital distractions – turning off the phone, video games, Facebook, TV, etc.
Reducing or rearranging work hours to free up more time for study.
Asking loved ones to pitch in with home and family responsibilities.
Believing that anyone can learn and have the confidence to succeed.
Understanding that mistakes are part of the learning process.
Developing a specific, achievable goal to keep motivation high.
Learning to say “No” too low priority tasks.

Early Intervention

I completed an early intervention course and I received a high grade because I follow the instructions from the professor. The main goal for studying the subject was to get a better knowledge of special needs children and how to guide them to learn lessons and to get rid of some of the behaviors that will hinder their life in general. The people in this field are trying to get help others and the same time earns a better living. They asked questions that will help them to understand what they need to do and they can also solve behaviors and lack of some senses. They gather behaviors data and also an assessment of how much the students know the lessons. The basic idea is to help the students with their behaviors, lack of speech, lack of mobility and so on. I can see how some people do not have sympathy for special need children because they can not see how each student has a special gift and they did not ask to be born that way.

I had to figure out which course did I get the best grade. I had to picture my times in the course and what was the reason that I enrolled for the course. I had to understand the benefits of learning from the experts so I can help my students. We did several exercises so I can truly have a sense of what the students are going through all the times. After the class, I can comprehend and be passionate about the students graduate from the class and move forward to the next class.

My score for the LCI are:
Sequence (30)
Precision (26)
Technical Reasoning (24)
Confluence (25)

Based on my own unique Learning Patterns, I will schedule a time each week to read and reread the assignment. I need to anticipate the point of the reading and what I need to know after I read the article or the assignment. Another way is to look for Que words in the questions. I will read other’s writing to get a better understanding of critical writing skills. I will remember that is ok to write starting from the middle, I do not need to be perfect. To enhance my critical writing skills, I need to take times to plan what I need to do. It is good to break the plan into small tasks, then small steps of what I need to do each day. I need to stay focus and be specific about what is required of me to finish a project. I can implement the SQ3R tips for my sequence learning pattern, “Focus on following the process step by step: Survey, then Question, then Read, Recite, and Review.”
SQ3R for my precision learning pattern, “In the Read stage, focus on reading slowly and carefully to absorb the details. In the Recite and Review stages, make sure you are able to summarize the key points of each section, and if you cannot, be conscientious in going back and rereading.”

Stress

Stress if not under control by some types of internal or external mechanism can kill a person. First of all, it can damage part of the brain. The modern world now a day can stress a person more than the ancient days. As humans, we must locate the turn off button for stress. The proper stress like a roller coaster ride is good for the body, however, the wrong stress can cause an ulcer, headaches, body aches and so on. Study report compassion is one of the ways to cure stress if a person learns to care for the others, the personal stress level will decrease.
People have to cope with stress to be able to continue to live a life full of happiness. Some people used drugs, alcohol, foods to help manage their stress. Some people use exercises, such as yoga, karate, kickboxing, weight lifting, speed walking or physical fitness to distress. Each person can deal with issues based on the person personalities traits.
When a person cares too much about what other people think about him or her that can influence one’s ability to cope with stress. Social support is important to cope with stress, you need others to help you.
I score 55 which is very low on the Holmes-Rahe stress Inventory since I went through a major health challenge in the past, my life is very simple which help me to induce stress.
I lived now with my mother and my sister, they both have strong personalities and I am very laid back. Since my mother is retired and she has lots of times in her hand, therefore, her mind comes up with different issues. Sometimes I feel a heaviness on my shoulders and my heart feels likes it beat faster. I do kickboxing once a week, I also go for long walks around my town to help manage the stress. I attend church once a week to leave my issues in God’s hands.
In the Caribbean cultures, they pray to help deal with stress, religion play a big part in how mentally strong they can be. Irish American minimize their pain, Jewish and Italian openly express their pain. However since Black Americans are stereotyped as angry black women, most of us have to use numbness as a mechanism to deal with stress.

LCI

The sequence is crucial for success in college because there are rigid due dates and basic organizational skills required in order to be successful. If you use Sequence at a Use First level you will likely appreciate the structure that Ashford courses provide you. Each course from here on out will have a similar look and feel with fairly consistent due dates and expectations. If you Avoid Sequence, you must be very intentional and Forge your Sequence in order to keep pace with the accelerated course format. Using a planner or daily checklist will help keep you on track and help prevent you from falling behind.

Precision is the other Pattern most required for college success. The online classroom is a very text heavy environment and you must use Precision to read all of the material. Detail is important when communicating your thoughts in discussions and assignments. Double check your work and submit high-quality assignments with minimal errors. Because classes are only five weeks, you must develop efficiencies. If you use Precision as a Use First Pattern, Sequence and Technical Reasoning can help you increase your efficiency so you do not overanalyze tasks and become bogged down. If you Avoid Precision, take breaks and chunk your reading and writing to avoid feeling overwhelmed by too much information.

If Technical Reasoning is your highest Pattern, you must be intentional in order to survive college because the traditional college experience was not designed for this Pattern. You may have disliked school before because you were the kid that annoyed your Sequential and Precise teachers by being fidgety or refusing to complete work because you felt it was pointless. The good thing about online learning is that you will never disturb your instructors or peers so tap your pencil or pace around the room while you learn! When you have a class that you feel is irrelevant to real life, use Confluence to connect the concepts to real-life situations or keep your ultimate goal in mind to push you through. Remember that a boring or difficult course is merely a hurdle or a challenge that you can and will overcome.

If you are Confluent, you may have disliked school because you were bored and felt stifled. Find unique ways to express yourself and share ideas. Communicate actively with instructors if you want to put your own spin on an assignment or task. Use First Confluence can conflict with the rigid structure of Ashford’s courses so find the value that structure can provide. It will be important to stay on task and not take on too many other responsibilities. You may find you enjoy the five week format because courses move quickly and the constant change keeps you interested. You must be intentional to avoid the pitfalls of Confluence so use your Sequence to “check yourself” before you fall behind or go off on unrelated tangents.

Strong-willed learners possess amazing gifts that often make them natural leaders because they are willing to rise to any challenge. If you are strong-willed, you have to be careful to Tether Patterns when appropriate to avoid burnout. Go back to Chapter Four and re-read the story of Nia as her story provides a classic example of “confidence vs. competence,” a potential pitfall of being strong-willed. Be open and receptive to feedback and regularly reflect on your progress as a student.